State of the Beach/State Reports/VA/Beach Access
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There are no laws in Virginia that directly relate to public beach access. However, legislation such as the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act, Primary Sand Dunes and Beaches Act and the Wetlands Act enable public access sites for water dependent uses (e.g., installation of boat ramps).
Virginia is one of five "mean low water" coastal ocean states in the U.S. The ability to walk along the beach is often restricted because the property line in most cases extends to mean low water.
The state does not distinguish between "vertical access" and "lateral access."
The 2011 Coastal Needs Assessment, produced by the Virginia Coastal Program, indicates that there have been no recent changes to public access policies, but there have been changes to some land acquisition programs to address a strong demand for coastal access throughout Virginia's Coastal Zone.
The Chesapeake Bay Program maintains GIS data of various public access sites for the Chesapeake Bay Public Access Guide. The Chesapeake Bay, Susquehanna River and Tidal Tributaries Public Access Guide is available by calling the Chesapeake Bay Program Office @ 1-800-YOURBAY. The guide provides a map and information on over 600 major public access sites in the Bay area and enables the user to find sites offering opportunities for boating, fishing, wildlife observation and beach use. Note that this guide does not include open ocean beaches in Virginia Beach or the Eastern Shore.
Through the Natural Heritage Program, the Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) has created an online GIS mapping application for displaying conservation lands in Virginia. The database includes most federal and state lands, regional and interstate lands such as water and park authorities, parks and undeveloped or partially-developed lands owned by localities, lands owned by non-profit conservation organizations, and conservation easements.
Virginia utilizes several measures to minimize the environmental impacts of coastal access, including prohibiting access across dunes (elevated walkways), utilizing designated accessways, restricting driving/ORV use (unless otherwise designated), educational signage, protecting nesting areas, and avoiding/minimizing impacts to wetlands.
The Virginia DCR Website is a good source of information on beach access in Virginia. Virginia statutes and rules regarding conservation and recreation can be accessed via this site. Information on recreational planning, including a link to the 2007 Virginia Outdoors Plan (detailed below), is available on the DCR Website.
In the City of Virginia Beach, regulations and policies guiding public access are in City Code Chapter 6, Beaches, Boats and Waterways and the 2002 Beach Management Plan.
It is the policy of Virginia Beach to preserve beach access. The public's use of the beach there is a long tradition, and the city has been legally establishing that right over the years at Sandbridge, at the Oceanfront, and most recently, at Cape Henry. In December 2008 it was announced that the city was preparing to file suit staking the public's claim to access sandy beaches along the Chesapeake Bay. At issue is the Army Corps of Engineers' Lynnhaven Inlet dredging project planned for 2009. Sand cleared from the inlet is to be piped onto two miles of beach between First Landing State Park and the Lesner Bridge. But some beachfront property owners don't want to grant even temporary construction access for the project, let alone permanent public recreation easements required to obtain federal funding for the project. If necessary, the city is prepared to use eminent domain to acquire the easements and pay for them.
UPDATE: On March 7, 2009 it was reported by the Virginian-Pilot that the city had gone to court to condemn portions of the Cape Henry beaches for the sand replenishment project. In documents filed in Circuit Court against six condominium associations and landowners, the city claims that the public has a right to use the beach for recreation. The city also wants access to the land for beach nourishment projects.
UPDATE: The "beach fill only if you give us access" game of chicken took a new turn in May/June 2009 when Virginia Beach officials reduced the scope of the Cape Henry beaches replenishment project by a fifth in order to get approval from the Virginia Marine Resources Commission. The latest plan is to place sand only between Jade Street and east to First Landing State Park.
UPDATE: In July 2009 the Virginia Beach Circuit Court ruled to allow the city to condemn some land along the Chesapeake Bay for the replenishment project and for public recreation and construction easements. The Virginia Marine Resources Commission then voted unanimously to expand the city’s initial sand replenishment permit from Jade Street west to the Lesner Bridge. The work is scheduled to start in August 2009 and last into November 2009.
UPDATE: An article in the Virginian-Pilot on August 5, 2011 referenced a ruling confirming that the Cape Henry beaches have been public for years and the city doesn't have to pay adjacent property owners after condemning the shoreline. The ruling, made by Virginia Beach Circuit Court Judge A. Bonwill Shockley, gave Virginia Beach officials a major victory in the long-running dispute over who owns the sandy shores along the Chesapeake Bay.
There are restrictions on surfing in Virginia Beach from Memorial Day to Labor Day. These regulations prohibit surfing during certain hours (generally late morning to late afternoon on specified days of the week) at several different beaches.
Only approximately 1 percent of the shoreline in Virginia is publicly owned, according to Pogue P. and Lee V., 1999, "Providing Public Access to the Shore: The Role of Coastal Zone Management Programs," Coastal Management 27:219-237. Coastal property ownership is often a confusing and contentious issue in Virginia. Even in locations where a relatively high percentage of the coastline is publicly owned, such as in Virginia Beach (46% of the coastline is publicly owned), there are pockets of contested ownership, as detailed in the 2002 Virginia Beach Management Plan.
Pogue and Lee identify 388 coastal zone shoreline public access sites in Virginia. This corresponds to about one public access site for every 8.5 miles of shoreline. The state estimates there is about one public access point for every 5 miles of shoreline.
Conditions are considerably better in Virginia Beach than in the remainder of the state. The City of Virginia Beach (17 miles of city-controlled coastline) lists 200 beach access points in their 2002 Beach Management Plan. This is an average of 450 feet between access points. The city also maintains three public parking areas adjacent to the beach. Although there are many beach ownership issues in Virginia Beach, ownership disputes have not typically restricted public access. The federal and state government control 20 miles of Virginia Beach coastline.
Nearly all of the "Eastern Shore" open ocean coastline in Accomack and Northampton Counties is land that is protected or managed in its natural state. Starting at the Maryland/Virginia border on the southern end of Assateague Island is Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (see map). South of that, all or part of 14 barrier islands encompassing 45,000 acres between the Virginia/Maryland border of the Eastern Shore and the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay make up the Virginia Coast Reserve. Some of the larger islands (from north to south) are Metomkin, Cedar, Parramore, Hog, Cobb, and Smith. The archipelago, which is owned by The Nature Conservancy, is the longest stretch of natural beach left on the Atlantic Coast. Boaters may visit the islands for low impact day use such as bird-watching and beachcombing.
The Virginia Coastal Zone Management Program developed the 100 mile long Virginia Seaside Water Trail as a series of day-use paddling routes. The Seaside Water Trail runs between the Eastern Shore of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge at Cape Charles and Chincoteague Island. Additional trail segments go through Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and connect to Assateague National Seashore and the Assateague Canoe Trail. The Seaside Water Trail branches off at Chincoteague Island and ends at the Village of Greenbackville near the Virginia/Maryland state line.
Virginia Beach Parks and Recreation has a variety of waterway access sites.
The federal government's Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge is open to the public, as is False Cape State Park, but access to Fort Story Army Base was restricted after the September 2001 terrorist attacks and is now closed to nonmilitary bikers and joggers (and presumably, swimmers and surfers). The decision came after the Navy began reviewing policies when it took over the facility from the Army in October 2009.
Virginia's coastal zone has 11 state parks, 13 natural areas, 33 miles of public beaches (about 8.5 miles are ocean beaches), 111 public boat ramps, 155 fishing sites, 79 trails, 9 state wildlife management areas, and 6 state forests. There are close to 80,000 acres of local park, recreation and open space lands offering myriad recreational options. There are also 11 National Park sites and 13 federal wildlife refuges. Of the more than 10,000 miles of tidal shoreline, less than one percent is in public ownership for public use. The 2006 Virginia Outdoors Survey identifies public access to state waters for boating, fishing, swimming, and beach use as the outdoor recreation opportunity most needed in Virginia. Lack of information was cited as the number one reason preventing residents from using Virginia State Parks.
During the period from October 2005 through September 2006, 22 new public access sties were added in the coastal area. Two State Park sites have been acquired:
- a 1,240-acre site in Stafford County on the Potomac River
- a 430 acre site in Gloucester County on the York River.
The planning process for these sites has just begun and it will be several years before the sites are developed.
Coastal access data is collected and stored by the Department of Conservation and Recreation Natural Heritage Program. The data are typically updated every four years. DCR's Division of Planning and Recreation Resources evaluates the quantity and quality of coastal access and performs updates every five years. GIS maps are available. Contact DCR for more information.
Enabled by legislation passed during the 2002 Virginia General Assembly session, the Middle Peninsula Chesapeake Bay Public Access Authority officially began on June 13, 2003 upon the signing of the Operating Agreement by the member jurisdictions: the Counties of Essex, Gloucester, King and Queen, King William, and Mathews; and the Towns of Tappahannock and West Point.
The Authority members recognize that shorelines are high priority natural areas and that, as population density increases, it is critical that they set aside recreational access sites for all types of recreational activities, such as birding, hunting, fishing, boating, picnicking and sight seeing. These activities are important to our economy and to the citizens of the Commonwealth.
The Authority's duties include the following:
- Identify land, either owned by the Commonwealth or private holdings, that can be secured for use by the general public as a public access site.
- Research and determine ownership of all identified sites.
- Determine appropriate public use levels of identified access sites.
- Develop appropriate mechanisms for transferring title of Commonwealth or private holdings to the Authority.
- Develop appropriate acquisition and site management plans for public access usage.
- Determining which holdings should be sold to advance the mission of the Authority.
Virginia Outdoors Plan
A major statewide planning effort was completed in 2007 with the publication of the 2007 Virginia Outdoors Plan (VOP). The VOP is the Commonwealth's official plan for meeting the state's outdoor recreation and open space needs. The plan provides guidance to all levels of government and the private sector in the protection, acquisition, development and management of the state's significant outdoor recreation and open space resources. The planning process for preparation of this document and the prior 2002 VOP included an inventory of public and private recreation areas and facilities, an outdoor recreation and open space demand survey, and the preparation of the plan document itself. One of the significant issues addressed in the VOP is how to meet the increased demand for public access to the waters of Virginia. The Water Access and Blueways section of the VOP provides information on water access and water-related recreation for the Chesapeake Bay.
Public Access Information for City of Virginia Beach
The Trust for Public Land's website noted information on the Virginia Beach Outdoors Plan 2000, a $53.4 million parks and open space funding package intended to allow the city to begin acquiring properties identified in the Virginia Beach Outdoors Plan 2000 Update. Following is a quote from an article on the Website.
"This is a bold and visionary step, and we applaud the Mayor and City Council their plans to make Virginia Beach a state and national leader in funding parks and land conservation," said Debi Osborne, director of the Trust for Public Land's Chesapeake Field Office. "Years from now, the people of Virginia Beach will thank today's leaders for having had the foresight to invest in the city's long-term quality of life."
A significant document is the Beaches and Waterways Advisory Commission April 2002 Beach Management Plan for Virginia Beach. This plan is actually a revision of the 1993 Beach Management Plan, which was acknowledged to have several shortcomings. The current plan has divided Virginia Beach's coastline into eight individual beaches and two inlets, with each beach and inlet analyzed for its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and needs. Open ocean beaches in Virginia Beach with existing beach access facilities are as follows (from North to South): Cape Henry Beach, North End Beach, Resort Beach, Croatan Beach, and Sandbridge Beach. Detailed descriptions and maps of access points for the beaches are included in the Plan. Several issues encompassed all of the beaches, including beach ownership, beach restoration and replenishment, funding mechanisms, beach maintenance activities, access improvements, signage enhancements, parking, definition of recreational use programs, and additional beach use facilities. The commission has ranked these issues/recommendations, with the resolution of beach ownership issues to permit beach restoration at Chesapeake and Cape Henry Beaches listed at the top. This is due to the severity of the erosion problems at these beaches. Without proper easement agreements, these areas will continue to suffer from the effects of long-term erosion, as the city will not be able to steward the coastline. See discussion in the policy section above for the latest on this issue. The third listed priority recommendation is repair of the weir and aging infrastructure at Rudee Inlet to preserve the stability of Croatan Beach and minimize maintenance dredging requirements.
The Virginia Beach Public Works/Office of Beach Management maintains records of public beach access points. Maps showing beach access points for each beach segment are contained in the April 2002 Beach Management Plan.
Public Access Information Available through the Chesapeake Bay Program
The Chesapeake Bay Program, which is a unique regional partnership that includes Virginia, has published the Chesapeake Bay, Susquehanna River and Tidal Tributaries Public Access Guide (2005). It provides information on over 750 major public access sites in the Bay area, 219 of which are in Virginia. Basic site information, such as county/city location, type of parking, and the availability of boat ramps, fishing, swimming beach, trails, and restrooms, is provided. Note that this guide does not include information on public access sites for the open ocean coastline.
The Virginia Coastal Birding and Wildlife Trail, supported by the Virginia Coastal Program and ISTEA funds, uses existing roadways to link natural areas and wildlife watching sites throughout Virginia's coastal zone, capitalizing on Virginia's unique natural resources to generate eco-tourist dollars for the Commonwealth's coastal communities. Working with other mid-Atlantic states, the Virginia Trail could be a critical link in a larger Mid-Atlantic Coastal Birding Trail. Virginia's Trail is modeled after the Great Texas Birding Trail. Virginia's Department of Game and Inland Fisheries worked with Texas coastal resource managers in development of the trail. As a growing number of nature tourists spend their time and money along the Virginia Trail, communities will want to invest in and conserve the natural resources that are attracting tourism dollars. Public access enhancements along the trail are encouraged. The site selection and planning process has already created new partnerships among government agencies, local industries, land managers, community leaders, bird watchers and conservation organizations.
The Virginia DCR State Parks website provides a description of each site including amenities, maps and natural history information.
The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation's home page is a source of information on beach access in Virginia.
You can also can search for beach and ocean access locations at this page on the Virginia Tourism Website.
Beach Attendance Records
Information on beach attendance for all of Virginia was not readily available. The City of Virginia Beach maintains beach attendance information and data, which is accessible online at http://vbfun.com/pressroom/mediakits/VB2007/pdfs/2007FactSheet.pdf. This Website indicates that there are approximately 2.6 million overnight visitors per year to Virginia Beach.
Economic Evaluation of Beaches
Information on the economic evaluation of beaches in Virginia was not readily available.
The City of Virginia Beach keeps statistics on the number of overnight visitors and their economic impact on the city and the region. A report by Bureau of Research, College of Business and Public Administration, Old Dominion University (May 2007), stated:
Visitors to Virginia Beach spent an estimated $857 million in 2006. Based on our simulation of the effect of this spending, we estimate that the total economic impact of visitor spending, the sum of the direct, indirect and induced effects described above, is roughly $1.4 billion dollars of output from Virginia Beach industries, 14,900 jobs and $364 million dollars in earnings in Virginia Beach in 2006.
2006 visitor spending was responsible for generating more than 10,800 jobs and $73.2 million in taxes and fees paid to Virginia Beach from those industries having direct contact with visitors. To help attract both new and repeat visitors, as well as to provide additional services to residents, the City of Virginia Beach spent an estimated $64.4 million in tourist related expenditures in 2006. Net revenue was $8.8 million, resulting in a net return on expenditures of 13.7% to the City of Virginia Beach.
In 2011, the tourism industry in Virginia Beach set a record, generating a record $1.2 billion in spending.
The Virginia Tourism Corporation (VTC) tracks the economic impact of domestic travel expenditures on the state of Virginia. Detailed reports of their research can be found here. Findings are reported statewide, by region, and by county. Although the VTC does not track coastal region specific information, all of Virginia’s 29 coastal counties and 15 independent coastal cities (county equivalents) are included in their research. The VTC’s report includes figures on overall travel expenditures, travel-generated employment, travel-generated payroll, and travel-generated tax revenue. Some of the VTC’s findings include the following:
- Domestic travel and tourism was the 6th biggest domestic nonfarm industry in Virginia in 2007 with approximately 210,000 employees.
- Domestic travelers directly spent close to $18.7 billion in Virginia during 2007.
- Fairfax County received more than $2.5 billion in domestic travel expenditures to lead all of Virginia’s 134 counties and independent cities (county equivalents). Arlington County followed Fairfax County closely, ranking second with more than $2.4 billion.
- Domestic travel spending in Virginia directly generated nearly $2.5 billion in tax revenue for federal, state and local governments in 2007.
NOAA's Coastal Services Center (CSC) has written a discussion of the recreational value of beaches, in the context of beach fill projects. In 2009 CSC released Introduction to Economics for Coastal Managers, a basic introduction to economic ideas and methods that can be applied to coastal resource management. The economic concepts provided in this introduction are illustrated through several case studies. Other CSC publications can be found here.
The following two websites provide information on the economic value of coasts and the ocean throughout the country.
The National Ocean Economics Program (NOEP) provides a full range of the most current economic and socio-economic information available on changes and trends along the U.S. coast and in coastal waters. You can download data on jobs and GDP associated with specific types of coastal activities for each coastal state. You also can download data on commercial fishing and landings. The NOEP made public their fully updated Non-Market Valuation website in September 2008. The largest database in the world of studies documenting the environmental and recreational values of ocean resources, the Web site now includes 1) an updated methodologies section, 2) frequently asked questions, 3) examples of how Non-Market valuation influences public policy, and 4) an expanded table summarizing valuation estimates from across the United States. The National Ocean Economics Program has now released State of the U.S. Ocean and Coastal Economies - 2009, which presents time-series data compiled over the past 10 years that track economic activities, demographics, natural resource production, non-market values, and federal expenditures in the U.S. coastal zone on land and water. The report states that coastal states account for more than 80 percent of the U.S. economy. The NOEP website had this note in mid-2010: "The NOEP is now being hosted by the Monterey Institute of International Studies, with generous funding also provided by the University of Southern California Sea Grant Program. We are currently seeking additional funding to continue NOEP's mission beyond 2010, as well as expand it in new directions and integrate the NOEP with the Monterey Institute’s plans for a greater academic focus on International Marine Policy."
The website of Restore America's Estuaries has a report The Economic Value of Coasts and Estuaries. According to the report, U.S. coasts and estuaries that have been protected and managed in a sustainable way are worth billions. Beaches, coastal communities, ports, and fragile bays are economic engines that drive and support large sectors of the national economy. The report focuses on aspects of coasts and estuaries that are most dependent on ecologically healthy conditions. The authors also examined a growing body of research that reveals the economic consequences of environmental change in coastal and estuary ecosystems.
A report A Review and Summary of Human Use Mapping in the Marine and Coastal Zone was published in December 2010. This report was prepared by ERG for NOAA's Coastal Services Center. The report evaluated different methods and approaches to measure human uses of the coastal and marine environment. The uses were divided into 1) military and industrial uses, 2) consumptive uses (e.g., fishing) and 3) non-consumptive activities (e.g., swimming, surfing, kayaking).
For additional general discussion of the economic impacts of beaches, please see the article Economic Impact of Beaches.
Perception of Supply and Demand
The 2011 Coastal Needs Assessment is inconclusive regarding whether the numbers of coastal access sites are increasing or decreasing. This is primarily due to a lack of accurate data on the number of such sites, especially in the past.
According to the 2011 Coastal Needs Assessment, Virginia has a wealth of coastal resources and an overwhelming demand for access to those resources. There are more than 5,300 miles of shoreline and 2,400 square miles of tidal bays on the Virginia coast. The 2006 Virginia Outdoors Survey found that four of the top ten most popular outdoor recreational sites are water related: swimming (4th), sunbathing (6th), fishing (7th), and boating (10th). However, less than 1% of the shoreline is publicly owned, resulting in overcrowded beaches and overused boat ramps. This fact is evident in the Virginia Outdoors Survey finding that more than 50% of Virginians are most concerned about increasing the number of water access points, which the Survey identifies as Virginia’s greatest outdoor recreational need. There is insufficient funding to acquire or enhance access sites.
The 2001 Assessment identified the Chesapeake Bay Agreement (2000), which called for a 30% increase in public access opportunities in the Bay region by 2010. In order to meet this goal, Virginia will need to develop 66 new or expanded sites. The 2007 Virginia Outdoors Plan indicated that 36 public water access sites had been added since 2000.
Some of the impediments to providing new public access sites follow:
- Development pressures: There are two issues here. First, waterfront property is in high demand and can be a financially profitable alternative for localities to creating emotionally and environmentally profitable public access sites. Waterfront property in some parts of the coastal zone has appreciated an average of 400% over six years. Related to this, private landowners who have allowed public access to watermen for generations now often cannot afford to pay the property taxes associated with the rapid appreciation and may be forced to sell their property. New owners without this historic relationship with the watermen can block water access through their property.
- A recent trend along the coast has been the “privatization of the shoreline.” For example, marinas for public boat access are being redeveloped into condominium complexes with private boat access.
- Potential use conflicts between providing access and protecting sensitive resources: For example, boat wakes are significant cause of erosion in smaller tidal creeks.
- While often supporting creation of public space for larger tracts of preserved open space and greenways, the public, especially private landowners, frequently oppose potential public access sites near their property for fear of litter, vandalism, and crime, even though such public access may require as little as one-quarter acre. The importance of trash as an issue should not be underestimated. This fear is often misplaced as experience has indicated that users of public trails and other public open space often are willing help to maintain the site.
- Political pressures are also often an impediment to creating new public access sites. The limited resources at the local level are often used for projects other than public access improvement. Without vocal support from the public, localities are hesitant to spend scarce resources on public access.
Virginia passed a $119 million Virginia Parks and Natural Areas Bond in November 2002 to acquire property and enhance public access in the state, including areas on the Atlantic Coast. Information is specifically available on improvements to the Atlantic coast access areas. As the funding amounts have been changing for projects, you will have to contact DCR for more specific information on improvements to the Atlantic coastal access areas.
Based on findings from the 2000 Chesapeake Bay Agreement, as outlined by the Virginia Outdoors Plan (VOP), there clearly is not enough coastal access, beach parking or public transportation to/along the coast to meet existing demand, let alone projected future demand. Excerpts from the VOP include:
- With water access being one of the recreation resources in greatest demand throughout the Commonwealth, planning for these various types of water access is a priority. Because much of Virginia’s shoreline is privately owned, to meet the growing demands on water resources indicated in the 2006 Virginia Outdoors Survey (2006 VOS), partnerships between private and public landowners are a necessity.
- Based on the 2006 VOS, more than half of the survey participants felt the most needed outdoor recreation opportunities include public access to state waters for boating, fishing, swimming and beach use.
- The 2006 Virginia Outdoors Survey shows a 17.8 percent increase in combined water access needs for Bay, river, stream and ocean activities and for outdoor swimming opportunities from 2002 to 2006.
- Federal, state and local governmental agencies should continue acquiring and developing public access to beaches. Cooperative agreements among localities and other agencies, as well as private landowners, are encouraged in order to meet the increasing need for public access to beaches and other water-related recreational resources.
- Public agencies should maintain access to existing public beaches that may be jeopardized by changes in climate, land use and development activities.
- All agencies should provide adequate seasonal support facilities and services, such as restrooms, concessions, parking and maintenance at their existing public water and beach access areas.
- The 2006 VOS indicates that 44 percent of the Commonwealth’s population sunbathe and relax at the beach. Sunbathing at beaches is ranked as the fourth most popular outdoor recreation activity in Virginia. The statewide inventory of beaches is 2,047 acres, while statewide demand is more than 1,883 acres, which shows a surplus of beach access. However, this surplus does not take into account that access to beaches such as Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Fort Story and other military sites, as well as False Cape State Park is very limited. Of the people using the beaches, 73 percent depend upon a public beach. Virginia Beach is home to more than 13 miles of Virginia’s 38.81 miles of public tidal beaches. Maintaining maximum beach access and increasing beach size in Virginia’s state parks ensures maximum accessibility to state-owned beaches.
- There is much less public access to beaches than needed to meet demand indicated in the 2006 VOS demand, supply and needs analysis. Much of the suitable beachfront in the Tidewater, Virginia area is private or in military use. Although there is adequate beach area to meet local demand in coastal areas (regions 17- Northern Neck, 18- Middle Peninsula, 22- Accomack and 23- Hampton Roads), the large influx of beachgoers from outside these areas increases the demand on existing resources beyond the existing land capacity.
Public Education Program
A wide variety of information on public environmental education and outreach can be found on the Department of Conservation and Recreation's website.
Maps, signs and brochures are used to educate the public about beach access.
Division of Planning and Recreation Resources
Environmental Programs Planner
Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation
203 Governor Street, Suite 326
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 786-0887 office
(804) 371-7899 fax
- ↑ Pogue, P. and Lee, V. "Providing Public Access to the Shore: The Role of Coastal Zone Management Programs." Coastal Management 27:219-237, 1999.
- ↑ Katie Zunich, Virginia Beach Surfrider, written correspondence. February 25, 2002.
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